In this article, we have mentioned various SSH commands that will help you to perform various functions on the Linux system. You can run these commands using the command-line interface. Let’s go through a wide list of useful commands.
Before you start, you need to maintain some prerequisites for running the SSH commands via command-line.
- An SSH client that is suitable for working.
- An SSH server installed and configured on the remote machine
- The IP address of the connecting remote server
Accessing a Remote Server via SSH
If you want to establish a secure connection to a remote machine, then all you need is the IP address of the remote machine. Then you need to open the command-line terminal or the SSH client for running the below command followed by the IP address or the name of the client machine.
If you are connecting to the remote machine for the first time, then you will get the below-mentioned message. If you want to proceed then you need to type yes and hit enter. Then you will be asked to enter the password for the client machine.
Specifying a Username for SSH connection
Whenever you try to access the remote server, the SSH will use the current user. If you want to specify a particular user for an SSH connection you can run the below-mentioned command from the terminal.
Using a Different Port Number for establishing an SSH Connection
By default, any server on the network will listen to port 22 while establishing a connection. But, if there is a change in the port setting in the SSH configuration file then you have to specifically mention the changed port in the command, else you will get an error “connection refused” as shown below.
If you want to establish a connection to a remote host with a specified SSH port number, then you can use the -p flag as shown below.
ssh test.server.com -p 3324
Generating the SSH Keys Using SSH Keygen
For improving the SSH connections security, you can even generate a key pair using the keygen utility via SSH command. The key pair will include both the public and the private keys. The public key will be shared while the private key is kept secure.
These keys are used for authenticating the connecting clients to the server. Whenever you create an SSH key pair, you do not have to enter the password each time you establish a connection to the server.
For creating the key pair, you can run the following command on the terminal of the host machine.
ssh-keygen -t rsa
If you want to have the default settings, then you can hit enter whenever you get the prompt for the file location and passphrase.
Copying the Public SSH Key
For using the key pair authentication, you have to copy the available public key to the server. The key is in the form of the file “id_rsa.pub” that is creating using the keygen utility in the previous command.
If you want to copy the key to the server, you can run the following command from the client machine.
If you do not want to use the current user, then you can also specify the particular user that you want to use. You will be requested to enter the password for the first and last time then the connection will be made without any password requirement.
Copying a File Remotely over SSH using SCP
If you want to copy the files securely over the SSH protocol, you can do it using the SCP tool. Below is the basic syntax that you can use.
scp fileName user@remotehost:/home/username/destination
suppose, if you want to copy a file named “sample3” to your desktop on the remote server with the specific username, then you can use the following command.
scp sample3 firstname.lastname@example.org:/home/test/Desktop
Make sure you use the uppercase -P flag for specifying the particular port.
Editing the SSH Config File
By making the required changes to the SSH config file, you can control how the users can access a server using SSH. you can customize the SSH server options using the sshd_config file. Make sure to make the correct changes else the server will be inaccessible to you.
For making the changes, you can use the Vim editor. But, you need to have superuser permission to make the required changes. You can run the following command on the remote host to proceed with the change.
sudo vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Now you need to provide the sudo password, and the shell will open the file in the editor you want to change.
Restarting the SSH service
Once you make the SSH config changes, you need to restart the services in Linux to reflect the latest changes to the system. You can run one of the following commands depending on the type of Linux distro you are using.
sudo ssh service restart
sudo sshd service restart
Then, you need to provide the password for completing the process.
Basic SSH Commands
If you are about to work on the remote server, then you must know some of the basic commands that will be beneficial to manage the remote host.
1. Checking Working Directory Path
You can use the following command if you want to check the current working directory of the user. The output will display the directory’s location.
2. Listing all the Files and Directories
If you want to list all the contents of the current working directory, then you can use the “ls” command. You can use the below-mentioned flags with the “ls” command for different functionality.
- -a will help in displaying the hidden files and entries that will start with a dot.
- -l will help in showing the complete file details for directory contents such as permissions, ownership, date, etc.
- -s it will list the size of files, in blocks. You can even add the flag “-h” for displaying the size in a humanly readable form.
If you want to navigate from one folder to another, you can use the “cd” (change directory) command as shown below.
Always remember that the names are case-sensitive.
3. Changing Directory
You can use the “cd” command carefully and comes in variants as shown below.
- cd .. it allows you to navigate to the directory one level higher than your current location.
- cd - it will allow you to navigate back to the previous directory.
- cd / it will allow you to navigate to the root directory.
4. Copying a File
If you want to copy a file from one location to another, you can use the “cp” command along with the file name, its source, and destination as given in the below format.
cp file_Name /directory/path/destination
If you want to copy the directory and its content, then you need to use the “-r” flag with the command as shown below. Where “r” specifies the recursive.
cp -r Directory1 New_Location
5. Moving a File
The “mv” command will work almost in the same manner as the “cp” command. You can use the following syntax for the “mv” command.
mv file_Name directory/path/destination
6. Creating a File
For creating a new file, you can use the “touch” command along with the new file name. You also need to specify the file extension to specify the type of file to be created. Run the following command, to create a file.
7. Creating a Directory
For creating a directory, you can use the “mkdir” command along with a new directory name or full path in the below-mentioned format:
8. Delete a File or Directory
For deleting a Linux file, you can use the “rm” in the below-mentioned format:
9. Checking Network Information
If you want to check the status of all the network adapters, you can use the “ipconfig” command. If you do not specify any option along with the “ipconfig” then the output will show the active interfaces only.
10. Clearing the Terminal Screen
For clearing the current working area of the bash screen, you can type ”clear” on the screen and hit enter.
Running a Command on a Remote Server from a Local Computer
This method will not create a new shell but run a command and then return the user to the local prompt. Then you can run the desired commands.
If you want to run a command remotely from the local machine, then you need t make changes to the SSH command as shown below.
ssh test.server.com rm ~/Desktop/Dir1/sample4
Then, you need to enter the required password for the first time. Then the remote file will get deleted on the remote server without creating a new shell.
SSH is a very common method for transferring data between devices securely over the network. You can use this command for executing various useful tasks that will ensure the security of the complete process. It allows you to manage your remote server with the appropriate access on the remote server.
We have mentioned some of the commonly used SSH commands that will be used daily by the system administrator. Go through these commands and you will understand how SSH commands work.
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